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Efficient Load-Time Diversity for an Embedded Real-Time Operating System
Citation key Fellmuth2020
Author Joachim Fellmuth and Julian Hartmer and Hanno Skowronek and Sabine Glesner
Title of Book Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security
Pages 357-371
Year 2020
ISBN 978-3-030-54549-9
DOI 10.1007/978-3-030-54549-9_24
Address Cham
Editor Casimiro, António and Ortmeier, Frank and Bitsch, Friedemann and Ferreira, Pedro
Publisher Springer International Publishing
Abstract Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are threatened by cyber attacks just as any computing system. Even worse, due to them being embedded into the physical world, consequences can be catastrophic. The widespread use of unsafe languages and limited operating system protections makes code-reuse attacks particularly dangerous to smaller CPS. Existing effective countermeasures are either not applicable because resources are limited, or they introduce an unacceptable overhead. In this work, we propose a fine-grained load-time software diversity approach that is enabled by compile-time preparations. Its linear-time loading algorithm makes it feasible for resource-constrained CPS. We demonstrate our approach by fully diversifying an application including the real-time operating system FreeRTOS on an ARM real-time microcontroller. Our performance evaluation using the TACLe benchmark suite shows that the worst-case execution time overhead is acceptable.
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